According to a study published in August 2020 higher dietary intake of multiple nutrients, including minerals, vitamins, and carotenoids, is associated with decreased risk of progression to
late age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
The nutrients studied were vitamins A, B6, and C, folate, β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, magnesium, and copper.
These associations are stronger for geographic atrophy (GA), for which currently no treatments are available. Some patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) will develop geographic atrophy (GA), which refers to regions of the retina where cells waste away and die (atrophy)
The same nutrients tend also to have protective associations against large drusen development. Drusen are small yellow deposits of fatty proteins (lipids) that accumulate under the retina.
The top food sources of vitamin A in the U.S. diet include dairy products, liver, fish, and fortified cereals; the top sources of provitamin A include carrots, broccoli, cantaloupe, and squash. Vitamin A is essential for your health, supporting cell growth, immune function, fetal development, and vision. Because vitamin A is fat-soluble, it’s stored in body tissue for later use.
Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods, including pork, poultry, such as chicken or turkey, some fish, peanuts, soya beans, wheat germ, oats, and bananas. It's significant to protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism and the creation of red blood cells and neurotransmitters.
Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes. Other good food sources include red and green peppers, kiwifruit, broccoli, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, and cantaloupe. Vitamin C's important functions include helping to protect cells and keeping them healthy, maintaining healthy skin, blood vessels, bones, and cartilage.
Folate is a B-vitamin that is naturally present in many foods including vegetables (especially dark green leafy vegetables), fruits and fruit juices, nuts, beans, peas, seafood, eggs, dairy products, meat, poultry, and grains. Your body needs folate to make DNA and other genetic material. Your body also needs folate for your cells to divide.
Beta carotene is a plant pigment that gives red, orange, and yellow vegetables their vibrant color. Good food sources of beta-carotene include carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash, spinach, kale, cantaloupe, and apricots. The human body converts beta carotene into vitamin A (retinol). We need vitamin A for healthy skin and mucus membranes, our immune system, and good eye health and vision. Additionally, beta carotene has powerful antioxidant properties.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are important nutrients found in green leafy vegetables, as well as other foods, such as eggs. Many studies show that lutein and zeaxanthin reduce the risk of chronic eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.
Good sources of magnesium are green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. Magnesium is a cofactor in more than 300 enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation.
Copper is also vital to your health and is found in a wide range of foods, from meat to vegetables. Particularly good sources include oysters and other shellfish, nuts, seeds, shitake mushrooms, lobster, organ meats ( liver), leafy greens, and dark chocolate.